Sources and spokespersons

Source Credibility:

We can define it as the communicator characteristics or ability of affecting the receiver’s acceptance of the message.

Sources credibility states that the credibility of the message in advertising depends in two general things which that the source should be expert and trustworthy. And that there are correlation between believability and advertising effectiveness, that why the companies intend to use celebrities in their sources.


Three components of sources credibility

1. Knowledge or expertise: this type of spokesperson more preferred when the product is complicated or with high financial risk. Also when the product is complicated experts spokes persons tend to be more trustworthy .while ordinary people are more preferred when the product or service is low cost or low risky.
2. Trustworthiness: when the celebrities are viewed as trustworthy, people tend to believe them
3. Appearance or attractiveness: people tend to believe the attractive celebrities’ spokespersons as the appearance sometimes induce positive feelings toward the spokesperson. Also the celebrity's physical attractiveness should matches up with the presence and degree to which the product or service advertised enhances attractiveness. Though not all of physical attractiveness change attitude toward products.
Types of sources
there are four types of sources celebrities, CEO’s, typical person, and expert. the most common type of sources are celebrities .the effectiveness of the spokesperson depends on some characteristics such as (credibility, trustworthy, attractiveness and experience )Choosing a spokespersons can be someone who is from inside the organization or one of the group members such as chairman, president or the CEO/Executive Director, or board president, or it can be someone from outside the group.
Expert source: include physicians, lawyers, accountant, and financial planners. This type of spokespersons tend to enhance the credibility of informative advertisement
Typical-person source: there are two types of typical person sources the first one is paid actor or model who portray or resemble everyday people. The second type is actual, typical everyday people used in advertisement

Three variations of celebrity endorsemnt:
1.Unpaid spokesperson: this type of spokesperson supports a charity or cause by appearing in an ad They are highly credible and can persuade significant conurbations to a case
Celebrity voice-overs: in this type of ads the celebrity does not appear. It is used through televisions and radios, this type of ads adds interest to the ad but at the same time it can serve as a distraction when the individual does not listen to the message as he tries to identify who is the speaker.
3. Dead- person endorsement: occurs when a sponsor use an image or past video of celebrity who has died this type usualy used to get back old memories or attatch the product with old memories. Example: Marilyn Monroe

Benefits of having inside /or outside spokespersons

Inside spokespersons can be more knowledgeable about issues that concern and activities that concern the group, they are more familiar with the group's attitudes and philosophies; they also have the authority and credibility as they decide the group policy. However in some cases it is better to have outside spokespersons, when people from inside the group don’t have the required qualification of the spokes persons. Factors that must be considered when selecting a spokesperson there are three important factors that must be considered when selecting a spokes person:


1. Spokesperson must appeal to the target audience or the target market
2. The spokesperson should have some experience.
3. The spokesperson must have some sort of media appeal, such as an interesting story to tell, excellent communications skills.
Companies should be careful when selecting a celerity spokesperson because in some cases celebrity’s spokespersons can affect the company negatively. Like for example if they have a bad reputation which can make people’s attitude change negatively toward the company or the product.