Values and Lifestyle, VAL is a psychographic segmentation from a theoratical base in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.



History

The social scientist and consumer futurist ​Arnold Mitchell introduced the Values and Lifestyles psychographic methodology (VALS) to explain the changing values and lifestyles in the United States in the late 1970s. VALS was inaugurated as an SRI International product formally in 1978. Later, it was referred by Advertising Age as "one of the ten top market research breakthroughs of the 1980s."[1]

Framework and Segment

  • Innovator. These consumers are on the leading edge of change, have the highest incomes, and such high self-esteem and abundant resources that they can induldge in any or all self-orientations. They are located above the rectangle. Image is important to them as an expression of taste, independence, and character. Their consumer choices are directed toward the "finer things in life."
  • Thinkers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are mature, responsible, well-educated professionals. Their leisure activities center on their homes, but they are well informed about what goes on in the world and are open to new ideas and social change. They have high incomes but are practical consumers and rational decision makers.
  • Believers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are conservative and predictable consumers who favor American products and established brands. Their lives are centered on family, church, community, and the nation. They have modest incomes.
  • Achievers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by achievement. They are successful work-oriented people who get their satisfaction from their jobs and families. They are politically conservative and respect authority and the status quo. They favor established products and services that show off their success to their peers.
  • Strivers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by achievements. They have values very similar to achievers but have fewer economic, social, and psychological resources. Style is extremely important to them as they strive to emulate people they admire.
  • Experiencers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are the youngest of all the segments, with a median age of 25. They have a lot of energy, which they pour to physical exercise and social activities. They are avid consumers, spending heavily on clothing, fast-foods, music, and other youthful favorites, with particular emphasis on new products and services.
  • Makers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are practical people who value self-sufficiency. They are focused on the familiar-family, work, and physical recreation-and have little interest in the broader world. As consumers, they appreciate practical and functional products.
  • Survivors. These consumers have the lowest incomes. They have too few resources to be included in any consumer self-orientation and are thus located below the rectangle. They are the oldest of all the segments, with a median age of 61. Within their limited means, they tend to be brand-loyal consumers.[2]

Application

Courses about marketing use the values and lifestyle model (VAL) to determine the placement of a given product to a certain niche market in an industry. It predicts consumer behavior by concentrating on self-orientation and resources.[3]
SRI Consulting Business Intelligence has a product about segmentation reaserach based on VAL.

See also


  1. ^ Sric-Bi | Vals
  2. ^ Consumer Lifestyles: A Social Stratification Perspective, Rob Lawson and Sarah Todd, Marketing Theory 2002; 2; 295

  3. ^ Clow, Kenneth E., & Baack, Donald. (2010). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communication. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc..